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Adrian [née Pinsent], Hester Agnes, Lady Adrian (1899–1966), penal reformer, was born at Lordswood House, Harborne, Birmingham, on 16 September 1899, the only daughter and youngest child of Hume Chancellor Pinsent (d. 1920), a solicitor, and his wife, Ellen Frances Parker (1866–1949)...

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Baker, Thomas Barwick Lloyd (1807–1886), promoter of reformatory schools, was born at the family seat, Hardwicke Court, the only son of Thomas John Lloyd Baker and his wife, Mary, daughter of William Sharp of Fulham. Like his father, Baker went to Eton College...

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Bayley, Thomas Butterworth (1744–1802), penal reformer, was born at Manchester to one of the town's well-established nonconformist families. His father, Daniel Bayley, was deputy lieutenant for Lancashire and served, along with his father-in-law Thomas Butterworth, as a trustee of Manchester's Cross Street Chapel...

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Brise, Sir Evelyn John Ruggles- (1857–1935), prison administrator and founder of the Borstal system, was born on 6 December 1857 at Spains Hall, Finchingfield, Essex, the second son of Sir Samuel Brise Ruggles-Brise (1825–1899) and his wife, Marianne Weyland, fourth daughter of Sir Edward Bowyer Smith, ...

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Dame Geraldine Southall Cadbury (1865–1941) by Thomas Bowman Garvie, 1912 ? Birmingham Museums Trust

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Cadbury, Dame Geraldine Southall (1865–1941), social and penal reformer, was born Geraldine Southall at 5 Highfield Road, Edgbaston, on 29 June 1865, the daughter of Alfred Southall (1838–1931), chemist, and his wife, Anna Strangman, née Grubb (1841–1912). She inherited a propensity for social activism from her Quaker parents; her father was a temperance worker who taught a working men's adult school class, while her Irish mother was a supporter of women's suffrage. She was educated at ...

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See Campbell, Robert

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Carpenter, Mary (1807–1877), educationist and penal reformer, was born on 3 April 1807 at Exeter, the eldest of six children of the Unitarian minister Lant Carpenter (1780–1840) and his wife, Anna Penn (1782?–1856), a supervisor of schools for girls. The Carpenters belonged to the intellectual aristocracy of English puritanism, a world largely set apart from the wider society. Piety, an exacting sense of obligation, and reforming principles marked the household. Though vowed to tolerance, the ...

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Crawford, William (1788–1847), prison inspector, the youngest son of Captain Robert Crawford and his wife, Mary Haw of Great Yarmouth, was born on 30 May 1788 in London, where his father ran a wine retail business. He was educated for a business career, but from 1805 to 1815 he worked at the ...

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Crofton, Sir Walter Frederick (1815–1897), prison administrator and penal reformer, was born at Courtrai, Flanders, on 27 February 1815, the second son in the family of two sons and two daughters of Walter Crofton (1784-1815) and his wife Harriet née Wauchope (1782/3-1836). His father, a captain in the ...

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Eden, William, first Baron Auckland (1744–1814), penal reformer and diplomatist, was born on 3 April 1744, the third son of Sir Robert Eden, third baronet (d. 1755), landowner, of Windlestone Hall, West Auckland, co. Durham, and Mary (d. 1794), daughter of ...

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William Eden, first Baron Auckland (1744–1814) by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1792 Christ Church, Oxford

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Field [née Lowinsky], Xenia Noelle (1894–1998), prison reformer and horticulturist, was born in Secunderabad, India, on 25 December 1894, the daughter of Thomas Hermann Lowinsky (d. 1932), general manager of the Hyderabad–Deccan mines, and his wife. Xenia's unusual Christian names reflected the fact that her mother liked the sound of Russian words and that she was born on Christmas day. A year later the family returned to ...

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Fitzpatrick, Sir Jeremiah (c. 1740–1810), physician and campaigner for prison reform, was born in Kilbeggan, co. Westmeath. His background and early years are shrouded in obscurity, but circumstantial evidence points to the conclusion that his parents, of whom nothing is known, were Catholic and that they were comfortably off. He received a medical education abroad and though his graduating institution has not been identified ...

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Sir Jeremiah Fitzpatrick (c. 1740–1810) by William Barnard (after Samuel Drummond, 1801) by courtesy of the National Gallery of Ireland

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Forster [Foster], Agnes (d. 1484), wealthy widow and prison reformer, came from Kent and was married for about twenty years to the London shipowner, merchant, and MP Stephen Forster, who was mayor in 1454–5. He came from Somerset and maintained close links with the ...

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Fraser, Catherine (1786–1868), penal reformer, was born on 26 June 1786 at the High Street, Wapping, the only surviving child of James Fraser (1749–1825), merchant, and his wife, Ann, née Thatcher. James Fraser had premises in Wapping and later became a biscuit baker. In August 1794 ...

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Fry [née Gurney], Elizabeth (1780–1845), penal reformer and philanthropist, was born on 21 May 1780 at Magdalen Street, Norwich, the fourth of twelve children, seven daughters and five sons, of John Gurney (1749–1809), a merchant and banker, and Catherine Bell (1754–1792). Her parents were both descendants of old Quaker families, ...

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Elizabeth Fry (1780–1845) by George Richmond, 1844 Norwich Castle Museum & Art Gallery / private collection

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Thomas L. Hodgkin

revised by Mark Pottle

Fry, (Sara) Margery (1874–1958), penal reformer and college head, was born at Highgate, London, on 11 March 1874, the eighth child and sixth daughter of Sir Edward Fry (1827–1918), judge of the High Court, Chancery Division, and his wife, Mariabella Hodgkin (1833–1930). Joan Mary Fry...