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Alnwick, Martin (d. 1336), Franciscan friar, theologian, and philosopher, doubtless came from Northumberland. Possibly the Martinus occasionally recorded as participating in Oxford disputations in the last years of the thirteenth century, he was certainly at Oxford by 1300, when he was among the friars presented to the bishop of ...

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Argall, John (b. in or before 1545, d. 1606), Church of England clergyman and logician, was born in London, the third son of Thomas Argall (1499/1500–1563), ecclesiastical official, and of Margaret (d. 1592), daughter of John Tallakarne or Talkerne of Cornwall. Near the end of ...

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Bacon [Bakun], Roger (c. 1214–1292?), philosopher and Franciscan friar, is by inference from his later career usually assigned a birth date about 1214, and from early traditions it seems that he came from the south-west of England, perhaps near Ilchester in Somerset.

Bacon...

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Balguy, John (1686–1748), Church of England clergyman and moral philosopher, was born on 12 August 1686 at Sheffield, son of Thomas Balguy (c.1643–1696), master of the Sheffield Free School for over 30 years, and his wife, Sara Hathornwhite, whom he had married on 8 June 1682. He studied under his father, his father's successor (...

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Bate, John (d. 1430), logician and theologian, was, according to Leland, born west of the Severn (perhaps in the Welsh marches), but educated at the Carmelite convent in York. As a Carmelite friar he was a member of the London convent when he was ordained deacon by ...

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Beconsall, Thomas (1663/4–1709), philosopher and Church of England clergyman, was the son of John Beconsall of Lemster, Cheshire. He matriculated, aged sixteen, on 30 March 1680, at Brasenose College, Oxford. He graduated BA in 1683, MA in 1686 (in which year he became a fellow), and BD in 1697. He was vicar of ...

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Benson, Margaret (1865–1916), Egyptologist and religious philosopher, was born on 16 June 1865 at Wellington College, Berkshire, the fourth of the six children of Edward White Benson (1829–1896), archbishop of Canterbury (1882–96), and his wife, Mary (1841–1918), daughter of the Revd William Sidgwick...

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Berkeley, George (1685–1753), Church of Ireland bishop of Cloyne and philosopher, was born at or near Kilkenny on 12 March 1685. His father, William Berkeley (d. in or after 1734), who later held a military commission, was a gentleman farmer descended from a ...

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George Berkeley (1685–1753) by John Smibert, 1730 ? National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bethune, John (1725–1774), Church of Scotland minister and philosopher, was born on 6 September 1725 and baptized John Beton six days later, the son of Ferchard or Farquhar Beton or Bethune (1694–1746), minister of Croy, Nairnshire, of the Bethunes of Skye, and Margaret Rose (...

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Billingham [Bullingham], Richard (fl. c. 1344–c. 1361), logician and theologian, was associated with Merton College, Oxford, as a fellow from c.1344 until c.1361. He held many offices at the college, was sub-warden for several years and is said to have presented to the college library tables on logic and philosophy that he had probably compiled himself; this material does not appear to have survived. He obtained from the university the degrees of MA and BTh. In March 1349, following the election of ...

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Binning, Hugh (1627–1653), philosopher and Church of Scotland minister, was born at Dalvenan, Ayrshire, the son of John Binning, the proprietor of Dalvenan, and Margaret M'Kell, daughter of Matthew M'Kell (or M'Kail), the parish clergyman of Bothwell, Lanarkshire. Margaret M'Kell's brother Hugh M'Kail...

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Brinkley, Richard (fl. 1355–1375), Franciscan friar, theologian, and philosopher, was for a long time mistakenly referred to as Walter Brinkley. Nothing is known of his early life, except that he joined his order in Oxford. Brinkley's philosophical and theological ideas circulated at the ...

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Burley, John (d. 1332), Carmelite friar and logician, joined the order in Stamford, and studied at Oxford University, where he incepted as DTh. In 1303 he was one of the Carmelite doctors who supported the provincial William Ludlington in his resistance to the decision of the general chapter establishing the Irish and Scottish houses as a separate province. At the provincial chapter in 1305, presided over by two German Carmelites sent by the prior-general, ...

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Butler, Joseph (1692–1752), moral philosopher and theologian, was born on 18 May 1692 in Wantage, Berkshire. He was the youngest among the eight children of Thomas Butler (d. 1731), variously described as a prominent cloth merchant or linen draper in the town and as 'gentleman' in the records of ...

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Joseph Butler (1692–1752) by Mr Taylor of Durham, 1750–52 by kind permission of the Lord Bishop of Durham and the Church Commissioners of England. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Carpenter, Nathanael (1589–1628), Church of England clergyman and philosopher, was born on 7 February 1589 at Northleigh, Devon, son of John Carpenter (d. 1621), the rector there, who was a Cornishman. After matriculating at St Edmund Hall, Oxford, on 7 June 1605, he was elected fellow of ...

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Chatton [Catton], Walter (d. 1343/4), Franciscan friar, philosopher, and theologian, probably derived his name from Catton in Northumberland, a few miles south-west of Hexham. He entered the Franciscan order as a ‘boy’, that is, under the age of fourteen, and since he was ordained subdeacon in 1307 by ...

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Clarke, Samuel (1675–1729), theologian and philosopher, was born on 11 October 1675 at Norwich, the son of Edward Clarke, cloth manufacturer and MP, and Hannah, daughter of Samuel Parmenter, a merchant of Norwich.

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Samuel Clarke (1675–1729) by unknown artist, c. 1720 ? National Portrait Gallery, London