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Attakullakulla (1700x12–c. 1780), leader of the Cherokee Indians, was born in the Overhill Cherokee country (present-day eastern Tennessee). His parentage is uncertain. He was known among the British colonists as the Little Carpenter because he built a strong relationship with the British. ...

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Big Bear [Mistahimaskwa] (c. 1825–1888), leader of the Plains Cree, was born north of Fort Carlton in Ruperts Land, Northwest Territories, the son of Black Powder (d. c.1864), a minor chief. His parents were of Plains Cree and Saulteaux background. Big Bear...

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Blackfish [Cottawamago, Mkahdaywaymayqua] (1729?–1779), leader of the Shawnee Indians, was born probably about 1729 in the Shawnee territory in the Ohio River valley. Of unknown parentage, Blackfish, or Cottawamago or Mkahdaywaymayqua, appears in the historical record in 1777 as the war chief of the ...

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Joseph Brant (1743–1807) by Gilbert Stuart, 1786 [detail] Collection of the Duke of Northumberland. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Brant, Joseph [Thayendanegea] (1743–1807), leader of the Mohawk Indians, was born in 1743, probably in March, in or near Cuyahoga (near present-day Akron, Ohio). His parents, Peter Tehowaghwengaraghkwin and Margaret (fl. 1735–1780), were ordinary Mohawks with limited links to the tribe's leading families....

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Brant, Molly [Konwatsi tsiaienni, Degonwadonti] (c. 1736–1796), leader of the Mohawk Indians, was born a Mohawk, one of the six native North American nations which comprised the Iroquois confederacy and whose homeland was in present-day New York state. Brant may have been born at ...

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Garakonte [Daniel Garakontié] (d. 1677), Native American leader, is of unknown parentage. He first appears in Euro-American documents in May 1654, when he led a delegation of Onondaga Iroquois to Montreal. By that time he had already achieved prominence as an orator, or ritual specialist who spoke for hereditary chiefs on public occasions. There is no evidence that he himself held a hereditary title or was a clan headman. Yet in the general ferment caused by European colonization, orators often achieved influence far beyond their traditional role....

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Hendrick [Tiyanoga, Thoyanoguen] (c. 1680–1755), leader of the Mohawk Indians, was born about 1680, the son of a Mohegan father and Mohawk mother. By 1710 he had risen to a position of prominence, holding the rank of sachem among the Mohawk and living in the village of ...

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Massasoit (c. 1600–1661), leader of the Algonquian Indians, was born near Bristol, Rhode Island. The exact date of his birth and the names of his parents are unknown. He rose to become sachem (chief) of a band of southern New England Algonquian Indians later known to the English as the Wampanoag Pokanoket. In March 1621 he entered into an alliance with a group of English separatist puritans who had established a small and vulnerable village at ...

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McGillivray, Alexander (1750–1793), American Indian leader, was born on 15 December 1750 at Little Tallassee, a Creek Indian village on the Coosa River in Upper Creek country. He was one of the three children of Lachlan McGillivray (1719–1799), prominent Scottish trader and planter...

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Metacom [Philip; called King Philip] (c. 1630–1676), leader of the Algonquian Indians, was born in or near Mount Hope in what is now Rhode Island, the second son of Massasoit (also known as Osamequin) (c. 1600–1661), Wampanoag sachem, who, in 1620, greeted the first pilgrims in the land they named ...

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Miantonomo (1600?–1643), leader of the Narragansett Indians, was the nephew of the Narragansett Indians' principal sachem, Canonicus, and by the 1630s had emerged as co-sachem with his ageing uncle, whom he succeeded upon the latter's death. The Narragansetts' early relations with Plymouth Colony...

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Nimham, Daniel (c. 1726–1778), leader of the Mohican Indians, was born into the Wappinger branch of the Mohican Indians, the son of one Nimham, a headman. Nimham first appears in the historical record in 1756, when 225 Wappingers moved from the New York...

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John Norton (1770–?1831) by Thomas Phillips, 1816 Collection of the Duke of Northumberland. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Norton, John [called Teyoninhokarawen] (1770–1831?), leader of the Mohawk Indians, was born on 16 December 1770 at Crail, Fifeshire, the son of John Norton (b. c.1750, d. before 1809), printer and soldier. His father was most likely a Cherokee...

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Samson Occom (1723–1792) by Jonathan Spilsbury, pubd 1768 (after Mason Chamberlin) ? National Portrait Gallery, London

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Occom, Samson (1723–1792), leader of the Mohegan Indians and Presbyterian clergyman, was born in a Mohegan village near New London, Connecticut, in 1723, the son of Joshua Ockham and Sarah Samson, both Mohegans. At seventeen he was converted to Christianity by James Davenport...

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Opechancanough (d. c. 1646), leader of the Pamunkey Indians, was born of unknown parentage but was according to tradition the second eldest brother of Powhatan, principal Pamunkey (Virginia Algonquin) leader, and, therefore, the uncle of Pocahontas, and was thought by colonists to have lived to be a hundred years old. He is most famous for leading the ...

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Ostenaca (d. before 1780?) by unknown engraver, pubd 1762 ? Bodleian Library, University of Oxford

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Ostenaca [Oustenaca] (d. before 1780?), leader of the Cherokee Indians, was born of unknown parentage into the Cherokee nation, which in the eighteenth century was a loose federation of towns that spanned modern Tennessee, Georgia, and North and South Carolina. He first became prominent in the 1730s. Also known as ...