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Allectus (d. 296), Roman emperor in Britain, first appears in the records of the revolt of his predecessor Carausius (286–93). What little can be established about him derives from hostile contemporary, or near contemporary, accounts of that revolt, in which Carausius rose against the joint emperors ...

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Allectus (d. 296) coin ? Copyright The British Museum

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Antoninus Pius (ad 86–161) bust ? Copyright The British Museum

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Antoninus Pius [Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Pius] (ad 86–161), Roman emperor, was born Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus at Lanuvium, near Rome, on 19 September ad 86, the only known child of Titus Aurelius Fulvus and Arria Fadilla. He was educated at home and about 110 married ...

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Caesar [Gaius Julius Caesar] (100–44 bc), politician, author, and military commander, was born on 13 Quinctilis (July) 100 bc, probably at Rome, the son of Gaius Julius Caesar, a patrician of old but recently undistinguished family whose brother-in-law was Gaius Marius, and Aurelia...

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See Septimius Severus, Lucius

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Carausius (d. 293) coin ? Copyright The British Museum

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Carausius [Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius] (d. 293), Roman emperor in Britain and Gaul, revolted against the joint emperors Diocletian and Maximian and successfully maintained a separatist regime in Britain, and parts of Gaul, in the years 286 to 293. His name Mausaeus is a modern reconstruction; ancient sources give it only in abbreviated form: '...

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Claudius (10 bc–ad 54) bronze head ? Copyright The British Museum

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Claudius [Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus] (10 bcad 54), Roman emperor, was born at Lugdunum (Lyons) on 1 August 10 bc. His father was Nero Claudius Drusus, brother of the emperor Tiberius, and at the time governor of Gaul; his mother was Antonia...

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Constantine III (d. 411) coin ? Copyright The British Museum

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Constantine I [Flavius Valerius Constantinus; known as Constantine the Great] (272/3–337), Roman emperor, was born at Naissus (modern Ni? in Serbia) on 22 February 272 or 273. The year of his birth remains uncertain for lack of epigraphic evidence and calculations of the date are based on passing references in contemporary, or near contemporary, writers. These vary widely, suggesting that his age at death in 337 was between sixty and sixty-five years. A study of his career points to the latter age as best fitting the known facts about his various military appointments before his elevation to the throne. It has been noted that ...

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Constantine III [Flavius Claudius Constantinus] (d. 411), Roman emperor proclaimed in Britain, competed during his short reign (407–11) with the legitimate emperor Honorius to be the western Roman emperor. The pressure he exerted on Honorius's government increased its difficulty in controlling Alaric and the Goths, and thus contributed to the sack of ...

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Constantius I (250?–306) medallion ? Copyright The British Museum

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Constantius I [Flavius Valerius Constantius; called Constantius Chlorus] (250?–306), Roman emperor, was born in the Balkan province of Illyricum on 31 March, probably in 250. It is alleged that he was related to the emperor Claudius Gothicus (Claudius II) (r. 268–70), though this may be a later invention to enhance the imperial family's antecedents. His parentage is unknown but the subsequent use of names in the family suggest that his father may have been a ...

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Hadrian (ad 76–138) bust ? Copyright The British Museum

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Hadrian [Traianus Hadrianus] (ad 76–138), Roman emperor, was born on 24 January ad 76 into a senatorial family which had its roots at Italica on the lower Guadalquivir near Seville in southern Spain. His father was Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, a leading member of the city who had reached the rank of praetor in the senate; he died when ...

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Helena [St Helena, Helen, Flavia Julia Helena] (c. 248–328/9), mother of the Roman emperor Constantine I, has no historical connection with Britain, despite a widespread belief that she was of British origin. This myth, which stems from a strong medieval tradition resulting in numerous dedications to her, especially in ...

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Magnus Maximus (d. 388) coin ? Copyright The British Museum

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Magnus Maximus (d. 388), Roman emperor in Britain and the western empire, was blackguarded after his death by Pacatus the panegyrist of his conqueror, the emperor Theodosius. The historical tradition is hostile to a failed usurper, as usual, but there are hints that he was respected in his time. ...