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Attakullakulla (1700x12–c. 1780), leader of the Cherokee Indians, was born in the Overhill Cherokee country (present-day eastern Tennessee). His parentage is uncertain. He was known among the British colonists as the Little Carpenter because he built a strong relationship with the British. ...

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Big Bear [Mistahimaskwa] (c. 1825–1888), leader of the Plains Cree, was born north of Fort Carlton in Ruperts Land, Northwest Territories, the son of Black Powder (d. c.1864), a minor chief. His parents were of Plains Cree and Saulteaux background. Big Bear...

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Blackfish [Cottawamago, Mkahdaywaymayqua] (1729?–1779), leader of the Shawnee Indians, was born probably about 1729 in the Shawnee territory in the Ohio River valley. Of unknown parentage, Blackfish, or Cottawamago or Mkahdaywaymayqua, appears in the historical record in 1777 as the war chief of the ...

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Joseph Brant (1743–1807) by Gilbert Stuart, 1786 [detail] Collection of the Duke of Northumberland. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Brant, Joseph [Thayendanegea] (1743–1807), leader of the Mohawk Indians, was born in 1743, probably in March, in or near Cuyahoga (near present-day Akron, Ohio). His parents, Peter Tehowaghwengaraghkwin and Margaret (fl. 1735–1780), were ordinary Mohawks with limited links to the tribe's leading families....

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Brant, Molly [Konwatsi tsiaienni, Degonwadonti] (c. 1736–1796), leader of the Mohawk Indians, was born a Mohawk, one of the six native North American nations which comprised the Iroquois confederacy and whose homeland was in present-day New York state. Brant may have been born at ...

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Browne, Maurice (1555/6–1583), adventurer and courtier, was the fourth son of John Browne, merchant, of London, and his third wife, Christian, daughter of William Carkett of London. He was thirteen at the time of the visitation of London in 1568. John Browne died in September 1570, leaving ...

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George Calvert, first Baron Baltimore (1579/8080–1632) by Daniel Mytens, 1627 ? reserved

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Calvert, George, first Baron Baltimore (1579/80–1632), courtier and colonist in America, was born in Kiplin in Catterick parish, Yorkshire, the son of Leonard Calvert (b. c.1550) and Alica Crosland (d. early 1580s). He was descended from a Roman Catholic family that had been in ...

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Clifford, George, third earl of Cumberland (1558–1605), courtier and privateer, was born on 8 August 1558 in Brougham Castle, Westmorland, the eldest son of Henry Clifford, second earl of Cumberland (1517–1570), and his second wife, Anne (c.1538–1581), daughter of William, third Baron Dacre...

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George Clifford, third earl of Cumberland (1558–1605) by Nicholas Hilliard, c. 1590 ? National Maritime Museum, London

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H. M. Chichester

revised by Philip Carter

Clinton, Charles (1690–1773), surveyor and landowner, was born in Corbay, co. Longford, the grandson of an officer of Charles I's army who had settled in Ireland. He married Elizabeth Denniston (d. in or after 1773), who was of Scots-Irish descent, some time before the family left for ...

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Devereux, Walter, first earl of Essex (1539–1576), nobleman and adventurer, was born on 16 September 1539 at Chartley, Staffordshire, the eldest son of Sir Richard Devereux and his wife, Dorothy, daughter of George Hastings, first earl of Huntingdon. Sir Richard, who was created a knight of the Order of the Garter on 20 February 1548, died the same year, in the lifetime of his father, ...

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Walter Devereux, first earl of Essex (1539–1576) by unknown artist, 1575? [after original, 1572] ? National Portrait Gallery, London

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Dudley, Sir Robert (1574–1649), mariner and landowner, was born at Sheen House, Richmond, Surrey, on 7 August 1574, the son of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester (1532/3–1588), and Douglas Sheffield (née Howard), Lady Sheffield (1542/3–1608). The status of his birth, which was to become the leading obsession of his life, is still debated, as are the circumstances of his early life, due in part to his own deliberate exaggerations and falsifications. Despite his mother's later claim that she refused to surrender him to ...

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Sir Robert Dudley (1574–1649) by Nicholas Hilliard, c. 1591–3 National Museum of Fine Arts, Sweden

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Estaugh [née Haddon], Elizabeth (1680–1762), Quaker leader and colonial landowner, was born on 5 July 1680 in Bermondsey, Surrey, the second daughter and third child of John Haddon (1654–1724) and his wife, Elizabeth, née Clarke (1651?–1724). John Haddon was a convinced Quaker and twice had been fined for voicing his religious views. Like other Quakers he was persuaded by ...

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Garakonte [Daniel Garakontié] (d. 1677), Native American leader, is of unknown parentage. He first appears in Euro-American documents in May 1654, when he led a delegation of Onondaga Iroquois to Montreal. By that time he had already achieved prominence as an orator, or ritual specialist who spoke for hereditary chiefs on public occasions. There is no evidence that he himself held a hereditary title or was a clan headman. Yet in the general ferment caused by European colonization, orators often achieved influence far beyond their traditional role....

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Hendrick [Tiyanoga, Thoyanoguen] (c. 1680–1755), leader of the Mohawk Indians, was born about 1680, the son of a Mohegan father and Mohawk mother. By 1710 he had risen to a position of prominence, holding the rank of sachem among the Mohawk and living in the village of ...

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Knyvet, Sir Thomas (c. 1485–1512), courtier and sea captain, was the eldest son of Edmund Knyvet of Hilborough, Norfolk (d. 1503/4), himself the eldest son of Sir William Knyvet of Buckenham, Norfolk (c.1448–1515). Thomas's mother was Edmund's wife, Eleanor (...